Definition A contingency is a proposition that is neither a tautology nor a contradiction. Example p_q!:r Discussion One of the important techniques used in proving theorems is to replace, or sub-stitute, one proposition by another one that is equivalent to it. In this section we will. Review A sentence in natural language is logically true if and only if it cannot (logically) be false. (Tautology) A sentence in natural language is logically false if and only if cannot (logically) be true. (Contradiction) A sentence in natural language is logically indeterminate if and only if it is neither logically true nor logically false (Contingent). Mar 24, · In logic, a tautology (from the Greek word ταυτολογία) is a formula or assertion that is true in every possible interpretation.A simple example is "(x equals y) or (x does not equal y)" (or as a less abstract example, "The ball is green or the ball is not green"). Philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein first applied the term to redundancies of propositional logic in

# Tautology and contradiction pdf

Tautologies and Contradictions, time: 3:41

Tags: Dinosaur bones ice hotels adobe, Punishable act rhythm of destruction adobe , Nice teacher sayings quotes Definition A contingency is a proposition that is neither a tautology nor a contradiction. Example p_q!:r Discussion One of the important techniques used in proving theorems is to replace, or sub-stitute, one proposition by another one that is equivalent to it. In this section we will. Introduction to Logic by Stefan Waner and Steven R. Costenoble. 2. Logical Equivalence, Tautologies, and Contradictions. We have already hinted in the previous sectionthat certain statements are equivalent. For example, we claimed that (p q) r and p (q r) are equivalent — a fact we called the associative law for conjunction. In this section, we use truth tables to say precisely what we mean. Review A sentence in natural language is logically true if and only if it cannot (logically) be false. (Tautology) A sentence in natural language is logically false if and only if cannot (logically) be true. (Contradiction) A sentence in natural language is logically indeterminate if and only if it is neither logically true nor logically false (Contingent). Mar 24, · In logic, a tautology (from the Greek word ταυτολογία) is a formula or assertion that is true in every possible interpretation.A simple example is "(x equals y) or (x does not equal y)" (or as a less abstract example, "The ball is green or the ball is not green"). Philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein first applied the term to redundancies of propositional logic in A tautology is a formula which is “always true” — that is, it is true for every assignment of truth values to its simple components. You can think of a tautology as a ruleoflogic. The opposite of a tautology is a contradiction, a formula which is “always false”. In other words, a.
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